### Appraising the Impact of Critical Pipes on Water Loss Volume in WDNs considering Valve Effect

#### Abstract

Water loss through leaking pipes is inexorable in water distribution networks (WDNs). Due to the increasing level of background losses in the WDNs, water loss is recognized as a major challenge facing the operation of municipal water services. Background leakage (a form of water loss) are diffuse flow, overtime, it causes significant loss of volume of water in WDNs. Nevertheless, the leak flow can be managed by adjusting the pressures along the pipe. In most cases, the average pressures in some specific areas where these pipes are located are adjusted. To achieve this, it is necessary to identify pipes having a relatively high level of background leakage. These pipes are regarded as critical pipes. Thus, this paper presents the effect of critical pipes in WDN. In addition, the impact of pressure reducing valves on the water loss level is discussed. The results presented indicate that the impact of the critical pipes on the overall network leakage water flow is huge.

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